What is the correct word to describe the people who have not finished their work after the deadline?
For the antonym, there is finisher, but I can't find *unfinisher in the dictionary.
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The word I use at work is just "late". They're all late.
Unfinisher doesn't exist, but non-finisher does.
Your question is a little ambiguous though. Are you looking for a word for people who do finish, but after the deadline (flaky), or for people who never complete the work at all (non-finisher)?
Occurring, arriving, acting, or done after the scheduled, expected, or usual time; late.
There's also under-performing which doesn't imply anything about deadlines, but describes people who don't meet the expectations.
The words finisher and deadline are not related, because deadline refers to a date and finisher refers to a state. A person is either a finisher or they are not.
Perhaps finisher vs procrastinator would be the best pairing.
John Smith always finishes before the deadline, but Mary Smith finishes after the deadline. They're both finishers; deadline is just a reference to a date. You have to apply logical rules for it to make any sense.
The opposite of finish is start, but there is no opposite for finisher. You could say Mary Smith is a starter but that has a completely different meaning than the opposite of finisher.
One could say the opposite of finisher is quitter. Since someone who never finishes must have quit.
Furthermore, the question in a way is in error, since a finisher could also be someone who always finishes after the deadline, but at least they always finish.
Procrastinator is someone who keeps delaying things.
In scheduling theory, The standard terminology for how soon an action’s completion occurs before its deadline is called “earliness.” How far an action’s completion occurs after its deadline is called “tardiness.” Earliness and tardiness are formally defined in terms of “lateness,” as follows: lateness = completion time - deadline; earliness = max [0, -lateness]; tardiness = max [0, lateness].
I simply call them 'procrastinators'. Though, the term itself doesn't imply missing deadlines. 'Behind' can imply finishing late, but can also be used to determine their progress within the scope of a project that will be completed on time.
A few synonyms I've found that may work depending on the content...
src: http://www.thesaurus.com/browse/belated and simply clicking around within.