Is there a specific name or term for words that are the adjective form of nouns? Like "salty" from "salt", "Freudian" from "Freud", "glossy" from "gloss", etc.? What about adjective forms of verbs "loathsome" from "loathe"? Or verb forms of nouns like "to telephone"?
The most straightforward type of adjectivalisation involves affixation, as in the formation of heroic.
One uses derivational morphology to derive an adjective from a noun, creating derivative forms.
Although you don’t always have to. You can sometimes just use it attributively.