In the sentence: "So amazed he cannot speak", is "amazed" an adjective?
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Yes, X has to be an adjective in the predicate construction
- be so X that S
where S is any tensed clause (in this case, S = he cannot speak).
If it were a noun phrase, one would use such (a) instead of so
- be such (a(n)) X that S
- He was so mean that she slapped him.
- He was such a jerk that she slapped him.
Both of these mean that the degree of X is high enough to bring about S.
amazed is an adjective. It describes
Per the comments, if the sentence was expanded to
He was so amazed... the word
amazed would be a predicate adjective describing