Yet few colleges and universities have taken sufficient account...
Does the sentence above imply a negative/opposite meaning? e.g:
Few colleges and universities haven't taken sufficient account...
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There is one formal expression, "be yet to." Ex.
Few colleges are yet to take sufficient account.
In this case, yes, although the structure is positive the meaning will be negative.
But in your particular example above, yet is used as a conjunction. It means something like "surprisingly however." Ex.
The minister of education emphasized the gravity of the issue. Yet few colleges and universities have taken sufficient account.
So, and to answer your question, the "few colleges" did "take sufficient account."