What generic word/phrase can I use for materials like zipper, buttons, threads and needles, etc which are used in making clothes?
I want to use this word to describe a shop which sells these things.
Haberdasher is what you are looking for.
"A seller of small sewing articles, such as ribbons, tape, etc"
"A men's outfitter (N American)"
In the U.S., zippers, ribbons, buttons, etc., can be found at a craft store, or at a fabric store.
A fabric store will sell other material for making clothing. You'll find the walls lined with bolts of cloth, and a section where you can buy sergers and sewing machines.
A craft store will sell little if any fabric, but will sell glues, paints, scrapbooking supplies, etc., along with the aforementioned items.
There are places where you can get all-of-the-above, all under one roof. If so, the business might bill itself as a fabric & craft store, like this major U.S. retailer.
In UK English (also Australian and NZ), a shop like this is called a haberdashery (see http://www.thefreedictionary.com/haberdasher). Unfortunately, this means something else in North American English; I don't know a good answer for a shop like this in USA or Canada.
On the west coast of the US, there are a number of retailers known simply as fabric stores which sell all manner of accessories and devices related to making your own clothes at home. Including patterns, sewing-machine attachments, sewing needles, buttons, bolts of fabric, and whatever else you can think of. Businesses which make clothing to sell are called textile factories.