Can "steamroller" be used to describe a person like in the following sentence?
He is like a steamroller; nothing will stop him from getting work done.
Or are there any other meanings to the word I don't know of? (English is not my mother tongue.)
"Like a steamroller" is acceptable usage for describing a person. Dictionary.com (Collins) cites one meaning of steamroller as "an overpowering force or a person with such force that overcomes all opposition." The New York Times has many examples where people are described as such. Here's one: "the 6-foot-6, 245-pound Worrell, who played like a steamroller last night." Another: "Oprah came on like a steamroller but he is not showing any attrition." Sylvia Plath wrote "I need a strong mate: I do not want to crush and subdue him like a steamroller."