What does to mean in a newspaper headline, for example:
Airline XY to cut cost of pilots' wages
Is it a shorter form of "Is going to" or "Is planning to"?
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Yes. Normally it can be interpreted as "is going to" or "has decided to". In headlines, that construction usually indicates that something will happen; a decision has been made.
There is a construction "Airline XY is to cut costs" which means the same thing. All the headline subeditor has done is to remove the verb "is" (as they often do).