I've seen these phrases in some technical articles. Is there any difference between these phrases?
A collaborative environment is one in which individuals in the organization work with one another in ways that emphasize (this is a list of largely overlapping synonyms) sharing, mutual assistance, team spirit, etc.
A collaboration environment is one in which individuals do not work in isolation, each one tending to his or her own turf, but instead tasks will often be assigned to two or more people to work on jointly. Come to think of it, practically all organizations can be said to be collaboration environments.
The first expression implies a value judgment: we consider a collaborative environment a good thing and hold it out as an ideal. The second is a value-neutral description.