The Wycliffe Bible (c.1390) has 25 All thing that is sold in the butchery, eat ye, asking nothing for conscience.
The Tyndale Bible (1535) has, 1 Corinthians 10:25 appears as 25 What soever is solde in the market that eate and axe no questions for conscience sake
The Geneva Bible (1560) has 25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, eat ye, and ask no question for conscience sake.
From at least 1390, the concept of a shamble(s) was thus of an area in which animals were slaughtered and their (and other) meat sold.
Its development was: (From OED)
†1. A stool, footstool. Chiefly in figurative context.
c825 Vesp. Ps. cix. 1 Oð ðæt ic sette feond ðine scomul [scabellum] fota ðinra.
and then it became
2.†a. In Old English, a table or counter for exposing goods for sale, counting money, etc. Obsolete.
971 Blickl. Hom. 71 He þa ineode on þæt halige Salemannes templ, & þa ut awearp þa sceomolas þara cypemanna.
It then became more specialised, and by Middle English it had become
2b. spec. A table or stall for the sale of meat.
α c1305 Of Men Lif, etc. xv, in Early Eng. Poems & Lives Saints (1862) 155
Hail be ȝe potters [? bochers] wiþ ȝur bole ax..ȝe stondiþ at þe schamil [printed sthamil in Rel. Ant. II. 176], brod ferlich bernes.
And 100 years later synecdoche had taken place, and as used in the Geneva Bible:
- a. plural. A place where meat (or occasionally fish) is sold, a flesh- or meat-market. ? Now local.
a1410 in York Myst. Introd. 24 (note) All the folks of the salsemaker crafte..without the Flesshchameles.
The potential for use in a transferred/figurative sense was not lost on the people:
5. transferred and figurative.
a. A place of carnage or wholesale slaughter; a scene of blood. Chiefly plural construed as singular; rarely in singular form.
1593 T. Nashe Christs Teares 12 b The Infidell-Romaines..shall inuade thee, and make thy Citty..a shambles of dead bodies.
However, it took another 300 years to become acceptable as
5 b. plural. In more general use, a scene of disorder or devastation; a ruin; a mess. Originally U.S.
1926 P. H. de Kruif Microbe Hunters iii. iv. 83 Once more his laboratory became a shambles of cluttered flasks and hurrying assistants.
And this is the only meaning that is now common.