I am not sure if this word could be understood in the context: drudgery-produced. I know there is "machine-made," so I just "created" that word. I want to use it to describe some noises that are produced by people who are busy with dull, repetitive work, like what workers in the factory do on the assembly line or something. I kind of think that this word may be too artificial and it could cause misunderstandings. And if it does not make sense, which word can I use to indicate the dullness and repetitiveness of the noises?

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    – tchrist
    Commented Dec 28, 2023 at 19:13
  • 2
    When you talk about the the noises people are producing, do you mean utterances, or do you mean the sounds made by tools or machinery they're using?
    – user888379
    Commented Dec 28, 2023 at 19:36

2 Answers 2


The combination "< AGENT (noun) >-produced" is quite natural when the meaning of "produce" is one of the following.

1 produce something to make things to be sold, especially in large quantities
synonym manufacture
2 produce something to grow or make something as part of a natural process; to have a baby or young animal

However, there is at least one case to show that the productivity is not absolute; for instance using the term "mass-produced" in this way results in ambiguity because "mass-produced" is a term that has to be defined in a dictionary and as such it does not mean "produced by a mass".

Commercial Plant-Produced Recombinant Protein Products: Case ... Although the yeast-produced protein was not recognized by … (1, 2)

Audits of service-center-produced records (1)

Laser-produced spherical shock waves (2)

Aquacultural Ecology of Hatchery-produced Juvenile Bay ...) (2)

A Case Study of "MSU: Sight and Sound"--A Student-produced ... (1)

Google page of results from which the above examples are extracted

When "produce" means "bring about"—which is the case in the OP's sentence—the combination "< AGENT (noun) >-produced" appears to be non-idiomatic; not a single case of this usage appears in the page shown above.

OALDproduce something to cause a particular result or effect
synonym bring about

"Too artificial" does corresponds to what is called normally "non-idiomatic".

Possible phrasing

  • the hum/din/… of workers at their drudgery
  • 'The dull, repetitive sounds of their dull, repetitive work'. But we're into writing advice now. Commented Dec 28, 2023 at 23:57
  • Thanks for your answer! It's professional and thought-provoking. The word "hum" does fit this situation. Thanks again.
    – Yuhang Ma
    Commented Dec 29, 2023 at 4:22

drudgery is menial labor that causes physical fatigue and boredom. Though it can be noisy work, it doesn't have to be noisy, and for that reason alone drudgery-produced is not well suited to describing or evoking the monotonous, repetitive, mechanical noises of factory equipment on a production line.

clangor might work for your purposes.


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