Most words in the English language have multiple definitions. Often, these definitions will cross over to different parts of speech.
Dictionaries will usually list these words just once, in a combined entry. But the phenomenon is so common (with two parts of speech, at least - though perhaps not three) that I'm not aware of any specific term for it.
(If there is such a term, it's likely to be an obscure word, so, if you were to drop that word into a document, you might want to parenthetically define it).
I did a little research on-line, to see if I could find a single word for such words, but came up empty-handed. However, I did find a few places that would have been a prime place to drop the term - if such a word existed - yet these websites chose to express the concept as follows:
- A word can be more than one part of speech, and you must look at how the word works in a particular sentence to know what part of speech it is. The chart below shows examples of words that have more than one part of speech. – in eslus.com lesson pos10
- This variation in tag sets is unavoidable, since parts-of-speech tags are used in different ways for different tasks. – Bird, Klein, and Loper, "Natural language processing with Python"
- This will introduce students to an array of time-tested rhetorical devices, such as metaphor, simile, alliteration, word/phrase repetition, analogy, wordplay, anecdote, allusion, and dual parts of speech. – ydu.edu.tw Grammar & Rhetoric syllabus