What's the difference between résumé and CV?
When is résumé used? And when is CV used? Are they equivalent?
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In modern English and in the HR sense, they are pretty much used interchangeably and most people assume they mean the same thing.
If you look at their etymology, though, "curriculum vitae" should technically describe what happened over the course of your life, i.e. who your parents were, when and where you were born, upbringing, education, etc., before going into your work experience, while "resume" should sum up your relevant experience and is arguably targeted to your audience, i.e. if it's for an IT job, you'd leave out that you worked as a waiter during your Uni years and you wouldn't think of mentioning your parents (unless maybe their names are Bill Gates or something).
So I would always call what I send for a job application a "resume", but recruiters in my space (IT) typically say "please attach your CV" and mean the same thing. I suppose which you use depends on how pedantic you want to be....
A simple difference:
CV is WAY LONGER.
Resumes come in a million forms, but they are almost always concise and one page long.
CVs, however, can run on for an untold number of pages-- they usually represent a PhD-holder with a very extensive list of publications, research contributions, and work experience which they wish to share. I've seen CVs go on for a dozen pages.
So in essence, a CV is a bigger, badder resume. 90%+ of people don't need one, and employers don't want to see one.
EDIT: This is only true in the United States. The terms have different meanings in other countries.
In my experience, the CV Curriculum Vitae is used more in Britain and is quite thorough, 2/3 pages in length. Whereas a resume is usually a single page, used primarily in the US.
Now, as I said. That's my experience of it having successfully applying for jobs in both places - Others' opinions may differ.
I think most of the answers so far are speaking about the use of the terms in the US.
In the UK, it's always called a CV. Résumé would be understood, but it's a US English term. The assertion above that CVs are some monstrosity of "an untold number of pages" is just not true here. Standard CVs are almost ubiquitously two pages long, although academic ones may indeed be longer, and ones in other particular fields may be shorter.
My experience as an academic in the U.S. makes me conclude that the difference between a resume and a CV is primarily functional: a resume introduces an applicant to a prospective employer, while a CV provides an overview of a person's professional career for various purposes, including but not at all limited to a job hunt.
In academia a guest speaker's CV contains the sort of information the audience would like to hear about when the speaker is introduced. It also provides prospective employers with vital information regarding a person's qualifications for a particular assignment, but must typically be accompanied by a statement, usually in the form of cover letter, stating the ways in which the applicant's education and experience qualify the applicant for the position or assignment being sought. A resume, on the other hand, often begins with a description of the position being sought and, unlike most CVs, emphasizes the person's acquired skills and accomplishments relevant to that position.
Both resumes and CVs typically include lists of degrees, job history, awards, professional memberships, and completed projects, presentations, or publications, but the detailed content and format in which these appear may differ greatly from resume to resume depending on its purpose while being more standardized and all-purpose in a CV. A senior scholar often has a CV dozens of pages long but also maintains a set of bioblurbs ranging in length from 100 to 800 words for use in conference programs, lecture announcements, and grant applications.