Can a noun of any type be used as a direct object?
According to scribbr*, nouns can be classified into a number of different types. Most can be used as a direct object. This answer doesn't consider pronouns, because the question doesn't ask about pronouns.
I painted the fence.
I like London.
I recited facts.
uncountable (mass) nouns
I recited poetry.
I folded the leaflet.
I appreciate beauty.
I sacked the team.
I parked my car. I crashed my sister’s.
(This might be debatable; is sister's here a pronoun, or functioning as a pronoun, and does that mean that a possessive noun on its own can't be a direct object?)
I enjoy whistling.
I hate people.
These can't be used as a direct object because the noun phrase is the object — the main noun is necessary:
I like carrot cake.
Again, these can't be used as a direct object because the noun phrase is the object — the main noun is necessary:
I like my colleague Adam.
* Scribbr is simply used as a convenient list. No endorsement is intended.