I work in STEM and a problem I often face with is the use of "by" or "through". Let me explain it with an example. I have a quantity named "variance" that is derived after a certain number of tests (called Monte Carlo simulations). So, I write it like the following:

The performance of the estimator is evaluated by comparing its numerical variance with other estimators obtained by/through Monte Carlo simulations.


1 Answer 1


This context is similar to that of "through/by calculation".

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"Through calculation" is used a lot by non Anglo-Saxon authors and organizations, although not only.

"By calculations" is used much more often by Anglo-Saxon authors and organizations.

(To determine those facts takes a patient verification of the names in the pages of examples given.)

In consequence of this it can be said that both prepositions are correct but that "by" is found more idiomatic.

  • Nice statistics. Thank you very much. I am curious about how this plot is generated. :)
    – CfourPiO
    Aug 16, 2023 at 8:47

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