Could you use me's as in something like this?
- The person behind me's phone keeps ringing.
- The person behind me's breathing sounds laboured.
I've tried looking at other questions but I couldn't find anything about it in this context.
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"The person behind me's breathing" is called a "group genitive". Grammarian Richard Nordquist states in his introduction to the topic on ThoughtCo:
In English grammar, the group genitive is a possessive construction (such as "the man next door's cat") in which the clitic appears at the end of a noun phrase whose final word is not its head or not its only head. Also called a group possessive or phrasal possessive.
Group genitive constructions are more common in everyday speech than in formal writing.
Nordquist lists several authentic examples, in most of which the last word of the possessive phrase is a noun. Some may find the construction less acceptable when the final word is a pronoun as in this case.
Here are some of the examples of the group genitive that Nordquist includes in his article:
I am sitting here in my apartment, recording the guy next door's activities...
'Sweet Home Alabama' begins to play in the man with the boyish hair's pocket...
'No, sir,' said the lad, 'the fellow that washes the windows' brother.'
He is the woman who is the best friend this club has ever had's husband.
People might say it colloquially, but it doesn't really sound right. If you think about it as "the-person-behind-me" being one object, then it seems like it could technically be correct, but it definitely sounds really clunky to my ears. Some alternatives:
The first one would probably be my preference as a native speaker (southeast England) if I were writing, though in an informal setting I might also slip into the third one.