As the other answers have noted, ration is sometimes pronounced similarly to station, nation, and the like. This is a pronunciation that's noted in some dictionaries.
So, I've looked through some of Kipling's other works and found the following line in The Masque of Plenty (13):
God bless the Squire
And all his rich relations
Who teach us poor people
We eat our proper rations --
We eat our proper rations,
In spite of inundations,
And casual starvations,
We have, we have, they say we have --
We have our proper rations!
It's even clearer here that Kipling felt that 'rations' rhymed with 'starvations,' 'exhalations,' 'inundations,' and 'relations.' He likely had a non-standard pronunciation of the word.
Bizarrely, though, we see this line in The New Knighthood:
"Who fastens his belt?
"I," said Short-Rations,
" I know all the fashions
"Of tightening a belt!"
So it seems that Kipling either stretched the pronunciation to fit the rhyme or that he pronounced it both ways- this isn't that uncommon; lots of people use both pronunciations when referring to caramel or Nevada, so why not rations?
Now, as for your question about whether any accent pronounces 'stations' and 'rations' with the same ending, one specific accent in which I've noticed this happen a lot is the Indian accent. In the Indian accent, both words are pronounced with a completely different sound- not /eɪ/ or /æ/, but an /eː/ sound. (The other two sounds appear in very few Indian languages)
I can't find any citations for this, but I've consistently observed Indians (both from the North, South, and surrounding subcontinent) pronouncing 'ration' as /ˈreːʃən/. (Some) North Indians also do the same with fashion, and passion, and I've heard it in inflected/derived forms of these words (/ˈfeːʃnəbəl/ , ˈ/ˈpeːʃənətliː/ , /ˈreːʃənd/).
Also, a Quora thread suggests that Singaporeans do this too. There's a fair amount of cultural exchange between Singapore and India, so that could be a possible connection. Kipling also spent a small part of his life in India.
While the Indian accent doesn't fall in the conventional classification of 'native' English (the Western trilogy of American, British, and Antipodean), this is one accent that pronounces the two as rhymes.
Also, see this clip from Gilligan's Island, which was supposedly famous for this pronunciation- perhaps that's where Kipling picked it up ;)