Whether or not it’s a typo, it does not conform to the grammar of standard written English. What I mean by that is that I expect a professional editor would correct “extends” and “encompasses” to “extend” and “encompass”. Or this could be used as an example of a sentence with erroneous subject-verb agreement in a grammar test in a school setting. You’ve identified the issue correctly.
Notional agreement definitely exists in some circumstances in standard English, but it goes too far to say that notional agreement means that any noun phrase that can be thought of as representing a single idea can always take singular agreement.
Number agreement is sometimes not as immediately apparent in long sentences with multiple noun phrases as it is in shorter, simpler sentences. So let's consider a shorter sentence: “Their worries extends beyond TikTok”. I think this sentence would be found unacceptable by most speakers, regardless of whether we think of "their worries" as expressing a single idea. Therefore, I don't think notional agreement fully explains (or excuses) the use of "extends" in the longer sentence either.
The linked Merriam-Webster article ("On Notional Agreement, the Majority Speak") mentions another relevant consideration, the "principle of proximity". "Their worries extends" sounds especially bad because the disagreeing words are right next to each other: in the longer sentence, they are separated by a fair amount of material. But I don't think the distance between "worries" and "extend(s)" is sufficient reason to justify the lack of agreement in terms of standard English grammar. As a general rule, as long as "worries" remains the subject, adding other words before or after “worries” shouldn’t make a difference to the number agreement of the verb. I would say that proximity agreement in standard English mainly comes into play in clauses where the subject is a collective noun modified by a prepositional phrase in of, as in this example given by the article: "A crowd of revelers were approaching". But "worries about data access by foreign adversaries" is not this kind of noun phrase.
In practice, if the sentence in the CNN article comes across as acceptable to some (or even many?) educated native speakers, it is arguable whether it is appropriate to refer to it as an "error". But for the reasons above, it comes across as an error to me (as it did to you), and I think a non-negligible portion of other English speakers would have the same reaction.