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There is the sentence:

In 1917, the United States entered the War assisting the Allies.

The problem is 'assisting the Allies.' What parts of speech are they? Are they a type of clause? Adjectival, adverbial?

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In 1917, the United States entered the War [assisting the Allies].

The bracketed element is a non-finite clause, more specifically a gerund-participial clause functioning as an adjunct (your adverbial) in clause structure.

Only words, not clauses, belong to a part of speech.

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    To read the phrase as the aside that it is, picture a comma: "The United States entered the War, assisting the Allies." Commented Jan 27, 2023 at 17:08

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