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Notice that in the sentence

I love Internet forums, like Stack Exchange

"like" is a preposition and "Stack Exchange" is its object.

Substitute "like" with "for example"

I love Internet forums, for example Stack Exchange

What does "Stack Exchange" function as in the latter sentence? An appositive? The object in an elliptical clause? Something else?

Or, to move the focus away from "for example" to the noun,

I love Internet forums, particularly Stack Exchange

"Particularly" is an adverb. But what is "Stack Exchange"?

Thanks in advance.

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  • It doesn't really function in a sentence; it doesn't have a specific role like the subject or the verb. It's just an idiomatic prepositional phrase used to link one utterance with a previous one as an example. Nov 22, 2022 at 0:43
  • @JohnLawler I'll try something else to move the focus from "for example" to the noun. "I love Internet forums, particularly Stack Exchange." "Particularly" is an adverb. The question remains: what is the noun "Stack Exchange"?
    – femke_0
    Nov 22, 2022 at 8:52
  • "I love internet forums: Stack Exchange." is the same, I think. With "for example" an optional adverbial.
    – Stuart F
    Nov 22, 2022 at 9:16
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    Yes, "Stack Exchange" is a proper name functioning as complement of "like". Your other example, "for example, Stack Exchange" is best analysed as a supplement, a loosely attached element set apart from the main clause by punctuation (and intonation in speech) presenting non-integrated content. The expression "for example" is classed as an 'indicator' serving to clarify the nature of its semantic relation to the anchor, i.e. the NP "Internet forums". In your last example, the adverb "particularly" is a partial focusing modifier in the the integrated NP "particularly Stack Exchange".
    – BillJ
    Nov 22, 2022 at 13:13
  • I'm going with an object in an elliptical clause: I like cats; I particularly like tabbies. --> I like cats, particularly tabbies. Nov 22, 2022 at 16:54

3 Answers 3

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"I love Internet forums, particularly Stack Exchange." "Particularly" is an adverb. The question remains: what is the noun "Stack Exchange"?

Rephrasing so that the adverb fits its role, I'd say the verb "love" is elliptical to avoid repetition.

"I love Internet forums; I love for example/ in particular Stack Exchange.

The focus-adverb phrase modifies the verb love, which has the noun as its object.

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  • I can't upvote yet. Just wanted to say thanks for the comment.
    – femke_0
    Nov 23, 2022 at 15:49
  • @femke_0 You should accept the answer.
    – Barmar
    Nov 23, 2022 at 21:35
  • I'm sorry, but that's not the right answer. In the OP's third example "especially" modifies "Stack Exchange", not "love", so that "particularly Stack Exchange" is a noun phrase.
    – BillJ
    Nov 29, 2022 at 14:57
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I love Internet forums, for example Stack Exchange

Here you should consider the function of "for example "X".". It is a shortened form of and here I give an example of an internet forum for you, "X"

So in your example "Stack Exchange" is a proper noun that tells you what the example is.

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[In "I love Internet forums, like Stack Exchange",] "Stack Exchange" is a proper name functioning as complement of "like".

Your other example, "for example, Stack Exchange" is best analysed as a supplement, a loosely attached element set apart from the main clause by punctuation (and intonation in speech) presenting non-integrated content. The expression "for example" is classed as an 'indicator' serving to clarify the nature of its semantic relation to the anchor, i.e. the NP "Internet forums".

In your last example, the adverb "particularly" is a partial focusing modifier in the the integrated NP "particularly Stack Exchange"....

The indicator is in some ways like a coordinator in that it links together the elements in the construction. On the other hand, partial restrictive focusing adverbs like "particularly" / "especially" / "notably" are heads of the expressions they modify. Your 3rd example doesn't mean that "I love only SE" but rather that I don't love anything else to the same extent. – BillJ 2022 Nov 22

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