I understand your question to ask for a word to describe a product name that derives not from the product but from other association of the product with its origin, company or other influence.
Perhaps moniker is relevant:
- "Hoosier" is a common moniker for a resident of Indiana.
Twentysomethings. Generation X. Slackers. Why isn't there a standard moniker for the flannel-clad, grunge-happy, jaded, cynical loafers born in the Sixties and Seventies?
— James Aley
- Living up to the exclamation mark occasionally inserted into her moniker, P!nk belts loudly, raps lustily, moans orgasmically, and, unlike Britney, is altogether believable as an out-of-control party monster.
— David Browne
- More than a half-dozen automakers have announced electric pickup trucks, and Ford has chosen the Mustang monicker for its new compact electric SUV. - Bill Howard
These monikers reflect real or imagined characteristics of people (Indiana residents, loafers), a person (the rap artist P!nk), and a car (Ford).
ABC is the company’s moniker for a canned soup. It reflects the company’s origin as a maker of alphabet soup.
If you need a higher register word, albeit not fitting your question so well, you might use sobriquet
a name given to someone or something that is not their or its real or official name
Such nicknames are not necessarily “misguided”, although they may sometimes be so. Here is an example:
Kagome has grown to become the largest producer of Japanese tomato products and a major producer of other fruit and vegetable foods. Unfortunately, in Portuguese and probably Spanish this sounds like “I shit myself”.