He hoped to compete in some challenging open-water events later in the summer, including in the Neckar.

Is "including in the Neckar" acting as a modifier in the sentence above? If so, what is it modifying?

  • 1
    It's adverbial, modifying "compete in some challenging open-water events later in the summer". You could argue "including" is functioning as a preposition. Do you have some confusion about the meaning of this sentence?
    – Stuart F
    Jun 22 at 7:09
  • @StuartF Thanks. How is "including in the Neckar" modifying "compete in ..."? Jun 22 at 7:56
  • Dropping the third 'in' would be more idiomatic. Jun 22 at 9:29
  • The sentence is similar to "He will compete in ABC--and compete in C especially." The Neckar seems to be one open-water event being singled out as special to him. Jun 22 at 12:26
  • Note that events has been deleted from the phrase including events in the Neckar. Jun 22 at 14:11

2 Answers 2


It acts like an adverb:

Adverbials are words that we use to give more information about a verb.

In this case it modifies:

compete in some challenging open-water events later in the summer

  • isn't the verb "hoped" in this sentence Jun 22 at 9:11
  • He hoped is outside of the issue of the Neckar phrase. Jun 22 at 12:29

including in the Neckar.

is a free modifier: it modifies the whole main clause.

Free modifiers are in contrast to bound modifiers which modify a word or phrase.


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