Doctors seem to be unique among professions in that we use the possessive when referring to their appointments. "Doctor's appointment" is many times more common than "doctor appointment" according to ngrams. However, for every kind of specialty it seems to be the reverse:

What makes "doctor" different? Is this actually specific to that word, or are there other cases I haven't considered where we would use a possessive form?

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    Perhaps some prefer that, but I say "my eye appointment" and "my optometrist's appointment", "my surgery appt" and "my doctor's appt", etc. Nov 19 '21 at 17:29
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    Also note that no one uses "doc's appointment" and the term "doc appointment" is used instead. Makes it even more bizarre.
    – turkey
    Nov 19 '21 at 19:29
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    How many X's take X's appointment, instead of the more common appointment with X Nov 19 '21 at 20:02
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    I wonder whether it had to do with house calls (the doctor coming to you instead of the other way around). Proper nouns seems to accept the apostrophe-s - "He has Mary's appointment at 10, Mark's appointment at 11 and the doctor's appointment in the afternoon."
    – Lawrence
    Nov 19 '21 at 23:36
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    I’m voting to close this question because the question is based upon an incorrect use of Ngrams - the form of the query causes Ngrams to display both "occupation" and "occupation's" as the same query.
    – Greybeard
    Jan 5 at 12:18

According to Merriam-Webster, the apostrophe-s in doctor's appointment is not the possessive case, but the genitive case. More specifically, it's a descriptive genitive. The noun doctor describes the type of appointment and is used genitively. In doctor appointment, the noun is used attributively, as an adjective to describe the appointment.

Their research suggests that, while doctor's appointment seems to be more commonly used, it's simply a matter of preference or convention. Both are equally correct.

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