There's a 'backwards particularising' here. Take the phrase 'the increase'. What increase? It's specified as 'that increase in the average temperature of ...' (and in fact, 'that' could be used instead of 'the' here, but would be a rarefied usage). We say 'the Bay of Bengal', 'the crack of dawn', 'the Lord of the Rings', 'the man in the Moon', 'the man who shot Liberty Valance'. The specifier is the prepositional phrase (etc) postmodifying the head noun.
Similarly, What (or actually, what's) average temperature? Again, this is soon specified.
The final two definite articles are obviously in parallel. One could omit these (omitting just the second would imply/emphasise that the near-surface air and oceans formed a cohesive system ... not actually incorrect, and omitting the first perhaps hints too strongly at disparate entities), but 'the oceans' (and especially 'the Seven Seas') hint at a human ownership, and you'll often see the article with 'oceans' (and always with 'Seven Seas'). 'The oceans' also more strongly indicates all oceans.