So the common adage is "The apple never falls far from the tree."
So what would you call: "Sometimes the apple falls very far from the tree."
It points out an exception to the rule. What is the name of the literary device for this?
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This could be called "antithesis", or the juxtaposition of opposing of contrasting ideas (Wikepedia).
In this sentence, what is being opposed is implicitly contained in the very words that formulate that opposition, but the effectiveness of this device is still a matter of whether the "knowledge of the thesis" is shared by the reader.