I am an ESL student. I want to speak American English fluently.

Due to influence of my local dialect in my country, I only discover that there is [ə ɐ ɪə ɑ] doubtably according to my ear, and native American English speaker speak with allophone differently in their dialect, As in:

  • Russia /ˈrʌʃə/ —> [ˈɹɐʃɐ] [ˈɹɐʃə] [ˈɹɐʃɑ]
  • Asia /ˈeɪʒə/ —> [ˈeɪʒɪə] [ˈeɪʒɑ] [ˈeɪʒɐ] [ˈeɪʒə]
  • Comma /ˈkɑːmə/ —> [ˈkɑːmə] [ˈkɑːmɑ] [ˈkɑːmɐ]
  • China /ˈtʃaɪnə/ —> [ˈtʃaɪnə] [ˈtʃaɪnɑ] [ˈtʃaɪnɐ]
  • Prussia /ˈprʌʃə/ —> [ˈprɐʃɑ] [ˈprɐʃɐ]

I think there are more allophones. Am I right? If so, please add more allophones and which is the most common one.

  • 1
    Do we really say [ˈeɪʒɑ], [ˈkɑːmɑ], [ˈtʃaɪnɑ]? I'll agree that [ɐ] and [ə] are very common allophones of schwa in American English, but I have trouble believing that many people say these words with the vowel of Arkansas or chihuahua. Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 12:52
  • According to dictionaries, Arkansas is indeed [ˈɑːrkɑnsɔː] and chihuahua is [tʃɪˈwɑːwɑ]. I was thinking Arkansas ended with an /ɑ/, which I think is an uncommon (and maybe wrong) alternate pronunciation. But I don't believe many people use either of these vowels as an allophone of [ə]. (Although some people do use a /ə/ in Chihuahua.) Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 13:33
  • 1
    And [ɪə] is only an allophone of schwa in a few words like Asia or Appalachia that end in ia. Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 13:39
  • Let us continue this discussion in chat. Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 14:10
  • Vowel reduction is variable; comma [ˈkʰɔmʌ], rabbit ['ɻʷɛ̝ə̯bɨt] also occur. Related & possible dups: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
    – tchrist
    Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 16:03