Someone has written
- I would like to be a human being rather than being a feminist.
Is it correct grammatically to use 'being' here after 'than'?
What is the grammar behind it?
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It is correct; the syntax suffices to the purpose of making out clearly what word is meant in each case. There is not a case of what is called "repetition", such use of several times the same word being in many context not advisable. There seems to be involved no real matter of style or taste in this present matter. Of course, it can be noticed that the same form appears twice in close proximity, but there is usually not much to make of such coincidences, the important matter being first to use the words that communicate the meaning and intent of the writer/speaker as precisely as possible.
-Ing clauses are nominal clauses and "than" is a preposition, so the combination is proper because the complement of a preposition is often noun-like in nature.
(CoGEL 15.2) NOMINAL CLAUSES have functions that approximate to those of noun phrases: subject, object, complement, appositive, and prepositional complement.
I’m no grammarian, but common sense screams no!
My simplistic analysis of a grammatically valid sentence starting with:
I would like to be a X, rather than…
is that it must continue
Here the value of ‘X’ (human being) is irrelevant to the grammar, its only significant feature is that it takes — and indeed requires — the indirect article. However if we substitute “being a feminist” for Y, this does not work as it cannot take the indirect article required for the grammatical structure.
And if your grammar says otherwise, then it bears no relationship to the logic of the English language.