I have been searching for a verb that acurately means "negatively affect", especially when it's used to describe a situation where a person's intellectual capacity is temporarily harmed or damaged, causing failure in performance or functioning. For example, a drunk person's judgement is temporarily negatively affected due to the alcohol.

I have looked up words like "hamper", "hinder", "impede". But none of their definitions match the meaning I want to express.

But I don't mean "retarded" or "decreased intellectual capacity". Because I want a more general and abstract word to describe "causing a restriction to a person's ability to function physically, mentally, or socially."

Can you help me with this question?

  • Why not look up the verb related to impairment? Jun 18, 2021 at 13:46

2 Answers 2


The logical verb if you want to talk about impairment is "impair"

  • Thank you very much! I look up the definition of "impair" through the link you attach, and I find the definiton exactly matches what I want to express! I guess I just understand impair as "damage" not "negatively affect" before. Very helpful.
    – Bradley
    Jun 18, 2021 at 7:56
  • @Bradley If one of the answers here solved your issue, please take a moment and accept it by clicking on the checkmark on the left. That is the best way to express your thanks on the Stack Exchange sites.
    – terdon
    Jun 18, 2021 at 13:48


to damage or spoil to a certain extent; render less perfect, attractive, useful, etc.; impair or spoil

That billboard mars the view.

The holiday was marred by bad weather.


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