To best describe it, when the same word or family of words is used twice in the same sentence to provide an ironic meaning. For instance, "raiding English from the English, stealing poetry from the poets".
The literary device you are referring to is called Repetition :
a literary device that involves intentionally using a word or phrase for effect, two or more times in a speech or written work. For repetition to be noticeable, the words or phrases should be repeated within close proximity of each other.