The construction is grammatical, though subject to some restrictions. The idea is that the subject of the verb in question and some other element dependent of that verb have been inverted.
A chicken with an axe [subject]
standing in the corner [other dependent of verb 'stood']
Most commonly the other dependent is a locative, but other possibilities exist, as shown on p1385 of the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.
i George, can you do me a favour? [Up in my room, on the
nightstand, is a pinkish- reddish envelope that has to go out
ii [Immediately recognisable here is the basic, profoundly false
tenet of Movie Philosophy 101, as it has been handed down from “Auntie
Mame” and “Harold and Maude”:] Nonconformism, the more radical the
better, is the only sure route to human happiness and self-fulfilment.
iii She's a nice woman, isn’t she? [Also a nice woman is our next
iv Arrested were Nathan Johnson, 23, of New York, and his brother,
Victor Johnson, 32, a 15-year Army veteran.
v This jacket and cap will keep you warm throughout the chilly autumn
days.The jacket is made of a particularly heavy brushed denim, with
rivets at the pockets and a brown suede collar. [Complementing the
jacket is the cap, crafted of the same denim and featuring a brown
vi On Saturday they received an astonishing fourteen credit offers in
the mail. [Three days later came another eight offers.]
The examples given with 'lurking' and 'walking' could be taken to be locative, and would sound quite natural in a narrative. The example with 'annoyed' would only be felicitous if it had some connection to the preceding discourse.
The two teachers had had opposite experiences with their classes. Delighted with her students was the new teacher Mrs. Smith. Annoyed by his students
was our teacher Mr. Matters.
None of them fit the description of a dangling modifier, which, by the way, is not necessarily ungrammatical.
From The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar p190-191
hanging participle A participle (clause) that is not related grammatically to an intended noun phrase of which it would be the
modifier; also called dangling participle, unattached participle, unrelated participle, or dangling modifier.
A participle clause often does not contain a subject, but
grammatically, if it is placed near its superordinate clause, its
subject is ‘understood’ to be co-referential with the subject of that
superordinate clause. Failure to observe this ‘rule’ results in a
hanging participle, or often, more accurately, a misrelated
participle. When this happens, the participle clause is apparently
grammatically attached to the subject, though according to the
intended meaning, it is associated with a different *referent (which
may not actually be mentioned in the main clause). For example:
Speaking to her on the phone the other day, her praise for her colleagues was unstinting (Daily Telegraph)
The meaning here is clear enough, but strictly grammatically speaking
it is impossible to ‘recover’ the subject of the participle clause
from its immediate context. With regard to the following example
the question arises of what is shrouded:
Shrouded by leaves in summer, the coming of winter for a deciduous tree reveals the true shape of its woody skeleton (G.
Durrell The Amateur Naturalist, 1982, p. 105)
The same rule (that the participle clause should be related to the
subject) also applies when the clause is introduced by a conjunction
or preposition. The rule is not followed in this example:
Every afternoon, instead of dozing listlessly in their beds, or staring vacantly out of a window, there is organized entertainment
The hanging participle is generally condemned as ungrammatical,
rather than as a mere error of style. But it has long been widely
used, most famously by Shakespeare:
Sleeping in mine orchard, a serpent stung me (Hamlet, I.5)