Use of the definite article “the” indicates one masterpiece rather than one of many that might be indicated by the indefinite article “a”. In this case “... the masterpiece” refers the reader to one masterpiece, but to which?
There are many masterpieces in the world. Even if we understand from context that the reference is restricted to the works of Beethoven, which one?
The reference is completely defined by saying “... the masterpiece that is Symphony No. 5”. I suggest this justifies the construction.
I give you two fabricated examples:
“When we look at Europe and see the disaster that is Britain today, we despair.”
“We admire the expression of Jane Austen’s genius that is Pride and Prejudice.”
In these sentences and in yours we move from an undefined definite (introduced by the) concept drawn from a limited set of possibilities (works of Beethoven, various disasters in Europe, novels by Miss Austen) to its exact definition (which composition, which disaster, which novel?)