I am not very sure about the differences in the tone and the implication between the following:

i) Printed books increased literacy. ii) Printed books lead to an increase in literacy.

Are they different in that: "i)" points out a direct cause whereas "ii)" shows merely a positive connection but allowing other direct causes for the increase?

Regards, Leon

  • 1
    You understand it correctly, Leon. In fact I would say that the first sentence is inaccurate since printed books only led indirectly to an increase in literacy by increasing the number of books available and reducing their monetary cost.
    – BoldBen
    Oct 21, 2020 at 6:32
  • BoldBen has said all that is needed.
    – Anton
    Oct 21, 2020 at 7:19
  • Thank you very much, BoldBen!
    – Lenny
    Oct 22, 2020 at 0:44


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