I have two questions, but first consider the following sentence:
Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture.
Does adverb 'especially' refer to 'eating food' or to 'eating food in Western culture'? My intuitive reasoning would be that, if the writer intended to give the latter meaning, the sentence would have ended with 'eating food especially in Western culture'. What do you think the meaning is (or is likely to be)?
I tried to search for adverb placement rules but they never consider these complicated cases. If a rule exists at all, can you point me to some authoritative source explaining cases such as this one?