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I can't find any definition of "race" in its use for example on this page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headset_(bicycle_part)

on Cambridge or Oxford dictionaries...

Someone can tell me where this word comes from ?

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    The very first instance of race on the page links to an explanation of what it is. Did that not answer your question?
    – Laurel
    Sep 11, 2020 at 18:13
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    @Laurel, the OP knows what a bearing race is, but wants to know where it comes from, I think. A reasonable question, since Etymonline doesn't show the definition at first blush. Sep 12, 2020 at 7:03

4 Answers 4

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It's the third sense listed on Merriam Webster:

3 : a track or channel in which something rolls or slides

specifically : a groove for the balls in a ball bearing or rollers in a roller bearing

The analogy with a mill race seems plausible, but I haven't made any effort to check it (and it's an independent meaning now, anyway).

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"Bearing race" applies to many situations beyond bicycles. My impression has been that it's used mainly for ball bearings, to refer to the slot where the bearings run. I suspect that this is by analogy to a mill race (millrace) and similar concepts:

: a canal in which water flows to and from a mill wheel
also : the current that drives the wheel

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"A track or channel in which something rolls or slides" - merriam-webster

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Lexico (powered by Oxford) has a definition of Race that is as follows

  1. A smooth ring-shaped groove or guide in which a ball bearing or roller bearing runs.

Which describes its use in a bike headset.

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