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I have always been pronouncing the word "cello" and "ciao" with a /s/ sound but today I found out that they were actually /tʃ/ ⟨ch⟩.

It is /ˈtʃɛloʊ/ and /ˈtʃaʊ/. The letter C gives /tʃ/ sound rather than /s/ (which is what it should give before E and I). Almost all other words in which C comes before the letter E and I give /s/ sound. Examples: cell, fence, cent, city etc., the only common exception is "Celt" which has a /k/ sound.

I searched my question on Google and it gave me some similar questions in other platforms.

Same question on Quora:

One answer on Quora says:

It comes from Italian, and in Italian spelling, a c in front of an e or i is pronounced /tʃ/" but we have many other words that are from Italian in which the C comes before E and yet it gives /s/ sound like "concert" and some other.

It didn't convince me.

Wikipedia was also of no help.

So why is it pronounced with ⟨ch⟩ /tʃ/ and not /s/ ⟨s⟩?

Note: I know that English spelling is weird and does not represent English pronunciation but things have causes and reasons. I just want to know what "caused" it.

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Cello comes from Italian where it's pronounced with /t͡ʃ/.

Concert comes from French where it's pronounced with /s/, concerto comes from Italian where it's pronounced with /t͡ʃ/.

According to Standford University Website, the letter c in Italian is pronounced /t͡ʃ/ when it's followed by i or e.
Examples:

As John Lawler says in a comment (with little changes):

Concert comes from French, and gets pronounced with /s/ like French. Concerto comes from Italian, and gets pronounced with /tʃ/ like Italian. As noted, English spelling doesn't represent English pronunciation. But French and Italian spellings do, and we borrowed the spellings as well as the pronunciations.

It seems to me that Italian words don't change their pronunciations in English. Other example include pizza, palazzo, cello, crescendo, zucchini, Pinocchio etc.

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The full name of the instrument is "violoncello" in both English and Italian. This word is Italian and English has imported it with the Italian pronunciation. In Italian "-cello" is a diminutive suffix, so the name means small violon (not violin). "Cello" is an English (and German) abbreviation, and preserves the pronunciation of the "c".

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    It is indeed noteworthy that cello is a clipped version of violoncello, but how is that relevant to the pronounciation of c, which is what the question is about (and which is adequately explained in the already posted answer)? – jsw29 Sep 6 '20 at 16:28

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