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I've browsed a lot on the Internet and couldn't find the answer on how to use commas on the next examples. Probably, it's because I don't know how these constructions are called? I'd appreciate some help with this aspect, too. I'll drop a few examples.

1. And, if I had to guess, I'd say she is the one. -->Here, I used the commas like this because I think the logical order is "And I'd say she is the one if I had to guess." ( I know about "and" at the beginning, just an example)

2. He was in danger, and, by the look on their faces, there was no coming back. --> Here, I used the commas like this because I think the normal order is "He was in danger and there was no coming back by the look on their faces"

3. I wanted to eat a pizza, but, because I had already eaten, I just drank a glass of water. --> Here, I used the commas like this because I think the normal order is "I wanted to eat a pizza, but I just drank a glass of water because I had already eaten."

4. I came home from work, and, eventhough I was tired, I still repaired the fence. --> Here, I used the commas like this because I think the normal order is "I came home from work, and I still repaired the fence eventhough I was tired.

Please let me know if/where I am wrong and how are these constructions called. Any comment/ link to an article is very helpful and appreciated.

Thank you all in advance

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One thing I notice in 2, 3 and 4 is that you put commas before the conjunctions "and" and "but". This is neither necessary nor helpful. I need only consider one of your examples to illustrate the point. In its simplest form it is "I came home from work and repaired the fence." Now add the non-restrictive supplementary clause (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_relative_clauses) as an insertion, separated from the main statement by two commas. "I came home from work and, even though I was tired, I still repaired the fence." This is the correct version.

Your example 1 takes a similar analysis, even though you start with "And". In this case the simplest form is "And she is the one.", presumably an emphatic statement following some introductory precedent. For example: "I had to choose the best woman. And she is the one." The supplementary clause is then inserted, separated as above from the main body by two commas: "And, if I had to guess, I'd say she is the one."

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Since commas are used to represent a tone contour in speech, I heard every one of your commas. I would say they're just right; pretty much the way I'd say those sentences. Some of them remind me of the comma that I hear in a favorite punch line of mine:

  • And, who knows? Maybe the horse will sing.

Without the comma it doesn't sound right. To me.

Comma rules have to do with intonation -- speech melody and rhythm -- and not really with grammar. Punctuation of any sort is a feature of printing technology, and not of language. One of the exceptions is the fact that non-restrictive relative clauses need comma intonation at the beginning, and also at the end if they're not final in the sentence.

But with short phrases you don't usually need commas, no matter what kind of syntax is involved. Unless, that is, you want to use them. Commas are always a matter of speaker's (not writer's, but speaker's) choice.

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