I was able to find some relevant studies, so I will answer my own question.
Types of Prepositional Errors
In the literature, it has been established that there are three types of prepositional errors that English Language Learners (ELLs) make: substitution, omission an addition . The one addressed in this question is addition.
Many studies that have analyzed the types of prepositional errors committed by ELLs have shown that substitution is, in general, the most common out of the three.
In the question, it was pointed out that speakers of Indian English have a tendency to commit addition-type errors. I looked at the relevant studies in order to try to determine (i) if this is actually true, and, (ii) if it is true, why does it happen?
(i) Do Indian English speakers make more addition errors?
There is evidence which suggests so. A study involving students in Tirunelveli, a city in India, showed that 63% of the errors committed by the participants were addition errors. While this study only examined addition and omission errors, 63% still seems like a high number.
(ii) Why do Indian English speakers make more addition errors?
The Tirunelveli study provides some clues. The authors mention that, in some cases, the extra preposition is due to “literal translation from L1 to L2”. The study does not mention the first language of the participants. I assume it is Tamil, which is the official language of Tirunelveli.
The study provides a second clue:
Addition errors usually occur in the later stages of L2 acquisition, when the learner has already acquired some target language rules.
Due to English being used as a lingua franca in India, a point can be made that Indian ELLs, in general, are more advanced when compared to other ELLs. This implies that Indians might be more likely to erroneously add prepositions, while beginners would be more likely to omit prepositions.
There is yet another factor that could be at play, which was suggested by FumbleFingers in the comments. India’s massive size and its status as a former British colony create an environment where non-idiomatic forms might go uncorrected. A learner who hears both the correct and incorrect form might assume that the form with the extra preposition is the correct one, since, to my understanding, English uses more prepositions (especially in phrasal verbs) when compared to other languages such as Hindi.
The best explanation I could find, based on the evidence, is that Indians are, in general, more advanced when compared to other ELLs. This means that they are more likely to make addition as opposed to omission errors, since beginners would be less familiar with the concept of phrasal verbs and would be more likely to omit propositions. Due to the use of English as a lingua franca in India, the addition errors likely became widespread and eventually became commonplace in Indian English.