guys. Hope you are all in greatest condition. I do know that a verb can serve as an adjective when it is placed before a noun and this verb is either a past participle or a present participle in this case. My question: does a verb in the past participial form always bear a passive sense here? For instance: He was the escaped/escaping prisoner. Is it true that we cannot use escaped in the sentence above?
Yes, the passive verbs can act as adjectives when functioning as modifiers or adjuncts to the Noun, as opposed to argument in a sentence. You can use escaped. Word order doesn't matter either. The same goes for "A Found whale", it is describing the state of the noun, not arguing for a change in action.
There are three types of adjuncts: adverbial adjuncts, adjectival adjuncts, and noun adjuncts. Adverbial adj modifies verb or verb phrases. Noun adjuncts modify another noun, chicken-soup or compound nouns. Adjectival adjuncts: An adjectival adjunct is simply an adjective that comes immediately before the noun it describes in a sentence. They can also be referred to as attributive adjectives. Its removal from the sentence will not compromise the grammatical correctness of the sentence. He threw his sharpened spear. The meaning of this sentence is not 'he sharpened and threw his spear', sharpened is an adjective, not a verb. https://www.studysmarter.us/explanations/english/discourse/adjuncts/