- He lay staring into the sky.
- He came running towards me.
- He arrived finding nobody there.
I have read this by John Lawler but am struggling to put these into one of the five categories he mentioned.
They appear to be closest to adverbial clauses but have several issues including:
- Cannot add have to the start of them.
- Cannot be introduced by subordinating conjunctions.
- Cannot be moved around, at least not without sounding strange.
It seems this is because there is a certain temporal element to these participial clauses where one action has to happen first before the other; this is epitomized by the last example.
In fact, I'm not even sure if the third example is in the same category as the first two, because it can be re-written as:
3*) He arrived to find nobody there. (which is an adverbial Infinitive Phrase, right?)
So what category(s) do these examples belong to?