Is there a term for referring to an organization by its city rather than by its name? mentions synecdoche and metonym as terms used when an organization is referred to by its location.
Do these terms also apply when an event, rather than an organization, is referred to by its location? For example, Chernobyl, Fukushima, or Hiroshima.
What about when a date is used to refer to an event, such as 3/11 being used for the Japanese earthquake and tsunami?