I am a chinese. I am a caucasian. I am an asian. I am a spaniard. I am a vulcan/vulcanee?
Is there such things?
By the way this question is in using adjectives as noun in general and not bound to nationality.
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It depends, as some adjectives are used as nouns to describe specific type of people. We say "the sick" when describing sick people. Other examples are "the unemployed", "the rich and famous", etc. (Source: http://myenglishgrammar.com/)