This process has been used to aggregate CNTs into metal matrices such as silicon, copper, aluminum and nickel.

It sounds ambiguous to me since I cannot tell by who, when or to what extent has this process been used. It may be correct, though. What do you think? How would you make it clearer?

  • Ambiguity is about how one interprets the meaning of what’s there. It is not about identifying what might be missing.
    – Jim
    Nov 2, 2020 at 23:44
  • Also, 'aggregate to' or 'aggregate into'?
    – Ram Pillai
    Dec 3, 2020 at 0:39

2 Answers 2


The sentence is fine. It looks ambiguous because it has bern plucked from all context. I would normally expect either something before this sentence or after to fill in the details. Unless it's an actual quote, say in a marketing brochure from someone, in which case its normal to not expect much surrounding context.


"Has been used" is passive voice, which does make the actor (who/what is doing the action) ambiguous. Whenever possible, I think it's good practice to use active voice and make the actor clear. That would address your main concern, too. Whether or not "metal matrices" includes silicon is a separate problem. As written your sentence implies that silicon is one of the metal matrices.

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