The short answer is "None that I have ever read." The long answer is quite long.
The examples are very complicated and revolve around several points.
The meaning of “where… from”; the prepositional phrase “from the US”; the adverbial nature of when; the use of noun phrases as adverbs.
In the above, “where” and “when” are adverbs, respectively “at, in, on, etc, which place” and “at, upon, on, in, etc, what time, day, occasion, etc.”
I say this as (1)
Where are you from? Arises from the disuse of the genitive “whence”(adv.) = Of which place. Where are you from? = Of which place are you? = whence are you?
1855 Lord Tennyson Brook in Maud & Other Poems 102 O babbling brook,..Whence come you? (= “Of which place is the origin of your travels?”)
More linguistic confusion is caused by the almost synonymous use of “of” and “from” that was caused by the use/translation of the Norman French “de” as opposed to the Saxon genitive ‘s’. From indicated an origin, and of indicated an attribute or quality and we can see how this led to confusion.
It is made of gold
It is made from gold
Considering “from” as either an adverb or preposition, we have the emphatic locative sense of “originating” (adv.).
1720 Delany News from Parnassus. 19 From whence is this Fool? – From of which place has this fool come?
As you say, where and when, may correspond with “the US and “July 7th” but they are not referents.
In “Where are you from? and “When do you leave?” the questions are asked in order that the speaker might learn or become aware of something. That the “fact” might contain a noun phrase is irrelevant:
A: “When shall I do it?”
B(ii) “Each week” (noun phrase acting adverbially)
The language has dropped the genitive ‘s’ in colloquial/informal contexts and now the uninflected noun is often heard “The shop is closed Sunday, but will open Monday” in which Sunday and Monday are understood adverbially with the preposition omitted -> “on Sunday” or “on Monday”
The essence of a pronoun is that it has a referent: the speaker and listener must both know or be aware of the object that is the pronoun. E.g. The sentence “It does not work”, is essentially meaningless unless the speaker and the listener are aware of the thing that “it” is, whereas “When/where does it work?” is comprehensible.
Of, from and off all have overlapping meanings. – I made it of gold; I made it from gold; I took it from the shelf, I took it off the shelf; The apple is from that tree, The apple is off that tree.
 From this point, we need to look at the adverbial genitive https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_possessive
Another remnant of the Old English genitive is the adverbial genitive, where the ending s (without apostrophe) forms adverbs of time: nowadays, closed Sundays. There is a literary periphrastic form using of, as in of a summer day. There are also forms in -ce, from genitives of number and place: once, twice, thrice; whence, hence, thence.
There is also the "genitive of measure": forms such as "a five-mile journey" and "a ten-foot pole" use what is actually a remnant of the Old English genitive plural which, ending in /a/, had neither the final /s/ nor underwent the foot/feet vowel mutation of the nominative plural. In essence, the underlying forms are "a five of miles (O.E. gen. pl. mīla) journey" and "a ten of feet (O.E. gen. pl. fōta) pole".
Note that the fronting adverbial allows the inversion of subject and verb.