These words are fillers, pure and simple- the speech equivalent of wheat and fiber inserted into hotdogs because they are cheap materials. These words are similarly cheap as they require zero mental expenditure, but are aimed to give the appearance that the speaker has, like, you know, umm, totally something to say. @Nosajimiki has suggested fillering, which would seem the natural transformation of the noun to verb, but the word doesn't feel natural. I suggest padding which is a common verb connoting the addition of fillers, even in a linguistic context:
From Merriam-Webster unabridged: pad
a (1) : to expand or lengthen (as a book, magazine article, speech) by the insertion of additional material that is usually essentially superfluous and often extraneous to the point of being irrelevant and that is usually used merely to artificially bring the thing so expanded up to some desired size or length or that is used for some other usually equivocal purpose (as to add impressiveness, suggest intellectual depth, mask an otherwise distasteful theme) : inflate — often used with out
An example sentence by me: "The other answers are thoroughly padded with worthless fillers."
Granted, padding in writing or speech is not restricted to cheap fillers, as it is one of the oldest tricks employed by students doing homework at the 11th hour, discovering 17 ways to say the same thing in as many sentences. But it fits the bill.