(2) The structure S - V - IO - DO (I gave my dog a bone; I bought my wife a Lambo) can usually (though not always; see the exceptions, the different semantic readings, mentioned by Huddleston & Pullum below) be recast as
- S - V - DO - to [recipient] (I gave a bone to my dog.)
- S - V - DO - for [beneficiary] (I bought a Lambo for my wife.) (I called him a taxi.)
As Rodney D. Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum say: The indirect
object is characteristically associated with the semantic role of
recipient ... But it may have the role of beneficiary (the one for
whom something is done), as in 'Do me a favour' or 'Call me a taxi';
and it may be interpreted in other ways, as seen from examples like
'This blunder cost us the match', or 'I envy you your good fortune'.
On the other hand, (1)
An object complement is a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that
follows a direct object to rename it / add an attribute in a concise
manner, or state/describe what it has become / been made / been named. The structure is S - V - DO -C[obj]
Verbs That Attract Object Complements
- Verbs of making (to make, to create, to elect ...) and
- naming (to name, to call, to dub ...) often attract an object complement. In the examples below, the object complements are in
italics and come immediately after the direct objects.
- He makes her happy.
- They named her Heidi. (or They named her 'Heidi'.)
However, lots of other [semantic] types of verbs can take an object
complement. For example:
- They painted the kennel purple. (a resultative construction; the referent of the DO has been transformed)
- They consider him stupid. (a depictive construction, describing the DO's referent's (considered) state)
- They consider Liverpool champions.
- They caught him napping.
- I found the guard sleeping.
- I declare this centre open.
- I proclaim you King.
- We consider fish spoiled once it smells like this.
- I consider him a man now.
- To obtain a man's opinion of you, make him mad. (Physician and poet Oliver Wendell Holmes)
Those verbs such as elect, appoint, make, choose, deem, assign, name, select, and designate, used to indicate the resulting condition / state / position of a person, place, or thing that the action of the verb occasions, are called factitive verbs.
An object complement is not always one word. It could be a phrase. For
- I found the guard sleeping in the barn.
- We all consider her unworthy of the position.
- I proclaim you King Joachim of Crato. [GrammarMonster; heavily modifed]
The possibility of ambiguity remains when the object complement is a noun, though it is usually only encountered in schoolboy humour:
- "Call me a taxi!"
- "You're a taxi!"