I would like to find a generic term for a transaction of type Invoice, Debit Note, or Credit Note.
transaction is already reserved since the context involves other sorts of transactions different from the aforementioned ones.
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Those are all representations of a limited type of balance sheet:
: a statement of financial condition at a given date
In this case, they are statements of what is owed by somebody or to somebody. They correspond to a specific subset of an overall account.
Note that while invoice is both a verb and a noun, debit note and credit note are only nouns. And if invoice is also being treated as a noun, none of those things are actually transactions in the first place.
Invoices, debit notes, and credit notes represent the result of one or more transactions, such as a sale or purchase, or other exchange of goods or services.