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Something like a remnant of a system that originally had a purpose, but has since lost its purpose, to the point of having a negative impact on the current system.

Think of something like an outdated technology, that currently has a range of issues. In it's prime, it was a good choice, but now it is causing more issues than it solves.

Real world examples:

'The system contains x technology, likely a [insert word here] from when the system was first designed.'

'The human body still has a [insert word here] tailbone.' (nowadays causing more problems than it has benefits)

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3

In the second case you mentioned, the technical term is "Vestigial"

In general, you could use the term "Obsolete"

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legacy_system

Legacy - In computing, a legacy system is an old method, technology, computer system, or application program, "of, relating to, or being a previous or outdated computer system,"[1] yet still in use.

https://www.gavant.com/library/what-are-the-biggest-problems-with-legacy-software/

Here are some of the problems with legacy software and the reasons why systems need to be replaced:

https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/vestigial

Vestigial - forming a very small remnant of something that was once much larger or more noticeable. "he felt a vestigial flicker of anger from last night"

Biology - (of an organ or part of the body) degenerate, rudimentary, or atrophied, having become functionless in the course of evolution. [Vestigial organs can become detrimental: appendicitis or impacted wisdom teeth, for example.]

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Outdated or Obsolete would fit for the first sentence.

The system contains x technology, likely an outdated/obsolete piece of equipment/software from when the system was first designed.

As @Arunkgp mentioned, "Vestigial" is the technical term, but it doesn't mean that it's presence has negative/bad impact. It means that it doesn't have any function anymore.

I'm not sure if the word you're looking for would fit both the sentences.

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  • "Antiquated" is a bit stronger.
    – Hot Licks
    Apr 22 '20 at 13:21
  • Doesn't vestigial mean 'not fully developed'? Antiquated may not be negative; it may have a vintage value :), obsolete is not old, but a byproduct of ongoing activities/ processes etc. Interesting collection... :)
    – Ram Pillai
    Apr 22 '20 at 13:36
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How about artifact (M-W): something arising from or associated with an earlier time especially when regarded as no longer appropriate, relevant, or important

An artifact could have negative (no longer appropriate) or neutral (no longer relevant or important) effects.

Your example sentences:

The system contains x technology, likely an artifact from when the system was first designed.

The human body still has a tailbone, an artifact of the evolution of homo sapiens.

In any event, it's a single word that works in both sentences.

UPDATE: Another noun that works is vestige. From Cambridge:

vestige: a small part or amount of something larger, stronger, or more important that still exists from something that existed in the past

Your example sentences:

The system contains x technology, likely a vestige from when the system was first designed.

The human body still has a tailbone, a vestige of the evolution of homo sapiens from other species.

Like artifact, vestige is also a single word that works in both sentences.

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Spoiled

(as a verb) to damage severely or harm (something), especially with reference to its excellence, value, usefulness, etc (dictionary.com)

Time-corrupted

Fallen

having dropped or come down from a higher place, from an upright position, or from a higher level, degree, amount, quality, value, number, etc.

Though this does not include its biblical connotation that probably makes it a better fit

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