As in the other responses, this isn't a case of being grammatically wrong, rather it is semantically wrong. Noam Chomsky long ago observed that grammatically valid constructions can still be "wrong" because of the meaning of the particular words used. ("Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.")
It would be correct (if odd) to ask someone to "...choose from three out of four options"--meaning that there are four total options, but you are limiting the choice to being between a subset of them. Thus, the problem with "chose from one out of four" is not that it is wrong grammatically, but instead that when the subset is restricted to consist of one option, there is no choice to be made.
For your case, any of the suggestions in Martha's comment are a better way of communicating your intent.