I am unsure about the use of commas in the following:

  1. In this case study (,) only one method is investigated
  2. To shift the load in time (,) heat pumps are needed.
  3. Flexible loads (,) such as electric heating devices, refrigerators (,) and freezers will be important for future energy systems.
  4. The components can coordinate the generation (,) consumption and storage of energy.
  5. Algorithm A results in total costs of 20 € for that day (,) which is 5 € lower compared to Algorithm B.
  6. The electricity generation by renewable energy sources (,) like wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, (,) challenges the energy system.
  7. The results show that Algorithm A (,) on average (,) leads to 10% improvement.
  8. In the simulation of the previous and this chapter (,) every building uses a gas heating system.
  9. While in the current system (,) the supply follows the demand (,) in future (,) the demand has to follow the power supply.
  10. Fossil fuels mainly generated the energy for buildings (,) whereas renewable energy accounted for only 18%.

I do not expect one of you to answer all of these questions. However,I'd appreciate every comment to each of those sentences. I'd be quite thankful if you could help me on that.

Update: Thanks for all the answers so far. Can anyone tell me his/her opinion on sentence 7.? Below one answer was given but I do not really understand it. It is correct to use commas in this sentence?

Update2: That about sentence 4.? Does there have to be a comma before the 'and'(like it is done in sentence 3.)

  • 1
    The second comma in (3) is an example of the Oxford comma. Apr 13, 2020 at 9:51
  • 1
    I suggest you have a look at what the Online Writing Lab at Purdue has to say about comma use. Here is their quick guide, and in the left side bar you will find links to further pages of advice on comma use: owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/commas/…
    – Shoe
    Apr 13, 2020 at 10:32
  • 1
    I like every comma except that those in 7 just get in the way, and 9 needs work. Apr 13, 2020 at 12:40
  • 1
    In 7, the commas interfere with a short sentence. In 9, the first comma looks like a mistake, and I'd change the middle to read "the supply follows the demand, in the future the demand will..." Apr 13, 2020 at 18:10
  • 1
    @YosefBaskin: Americans say "in the future", but in the U.K. they often say "in future". Apr 16, 2020 at 12:43


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