Tom lost his keys (while) walking through the park. (Tom lost his keys while he was walking through the park.)

She left the room singing happily. (She left the room as she was singing happily.)

When I search "reduced adverbial clauses", Sentences that start with a reduced adverbial clause are usually what I find in most of the English learning articles.(E.g., "After doing something, ..." , "Being late, ...")

The two sentences quoted above do not start with a reduced adverbial clause and they do not have a comma in each of them, and the article above even put a complete adverbial form of each sentence behind them. I wonder if their present participle parts are in fact a type of reduced adverbial clauses.

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    Like most adverbs, adverbial clauses, both reduced and unreduced, can appear in many places in a sentence, not just the beginning. – John Lawler Mar 6 '20 at 19:15
  • @JohnLawler Thank you. A lot of the articles only introduce few types of reduced adverbial clause and do not go into detail. Do you happen to know articles or books that may have more comprehensive content about reduced adverbial clause? – Sam Mar 8 '20 at 2:14
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    @JohnLawler Great point. When I saw "based on" and "compared to" used in sentences like "The players get paid based on how far they advance" and "The cost was peanuts compared to a new kitchen", I always wondered what type of the grammatical terminology they were and now I guess they can be interpreted as the results of reduced adverbial clauses. – Sam Mar 11 '20 at 14:37
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    @JohnLawler I know this is off-topic, but the passive construction you used(have been done a lot of things to) in your comment seems unfamiliar to me. Could you briefly explain it? I'm quite curious. – Sam Mar 13 '20 at 13:59
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    @JohnLawler That's exactly what I thought. Although do (a lot of)things/something to is a common usage it's still not an idiom. You are a very approachable grammarian and it's been great talking to you. – Sam Mar 18 '20 at 7:29

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