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Interestingly enough, a large number of the Facebook-based business ventures [have been formed][,] and [are run] and [managed] by women, which directly and indirectly contributes to women's empowerment in the country.

My first question is about the Comma in the third bracket before and. The rule of the Comma before and is:

  • The Comma before and joining two independent clauses
  • The Comma before and in lists of three or more items and etc.

Source: Using a Comma before “And”

But a large number of the Facebook-based business ventures have been formed and [are run] and [managed] by women are not independent clauses. So why the comma is used there?

The second question is about maintaining the parallel verbs which are [have been formed] and [are run] and [managed] which share the same subject. Shouldn't the verbs sharing the same subject be the same tense?

Source: Using Parallel Verbs

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  • Looks like a list to me. Ventures have been 1. Formed, 2. Run, and 3. Managed by women. Second question I am not able to explain, but I can tell you that it won't make sense if the tense is the same. Before the comma is past tense, after the comma is present.
    – Hunter
    Commented Mar 6, 2020 at 11:32
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    The comma 'rules' are not absolute and are 'given' / used to (1) guarantee clarity of meaning, (2) aid reading, (3) show emphasis by signalling say dramatic pauses, (4 ) fit in with a certain style. If too many commas of different types are evident in a sentence, it is best to rephrase. Especially when different rules seem to be in play and it is difficult to work out which should take precedence. // 'Interestingly enough, a large number of the Facebook-based business ventures were formed, and are run and managed, by women. This directly and indirectly contributes to women's empowerment....' Commented Mar 6, 2020 at 12:15

3 Answers 3

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The first highlighted comma incorrectly disrupts the flow of the sentence as you suggested.

The mix of tenses gives the reader a sense of continuity, that events have happened and continue to happen. It also seems to convey a wider time scale, that these are not new events; whereas "business ventures are formed, run, and managed by women" suggests now or in the future.

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In a comment Edwin Ashworth wrote:

The comma 'rules' are not absolute and are 'given' / used to (1) guarantee clarity of meaning, (2) aid reading, (3) show emphasis by signalling say dramatic pauses, (4 ) fit in with a certain style. If too many commas of different types are evident in a sentence, it is best to rephrase. Especially when different rules seem to be in play and it is difficult to work out which should take precedence. // 'Interestingly enough, a large number of the Facebook-based business ventures were formed, and are run and managed, by women. This directly and indirectly contributes to women's empowerment....'

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The use of the tense depends upon what event happened first and what followed thereafter. Facebook-based business ventures were first formed which is a one time event. Then, the ventures are run and managed by women who were hired after the formation of the venture.

Hence, the tense for formation is in present-perfect form and the other two verbs are in simple past tense.

P.S. "are run and managed" is equivalent to "are run and are managed" where run is in past form.

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